Research institutes came to emerge at the beginning of the twentieth century. team2 In 1900, at least in Europe and the United States, the scientific profession had only evolved so far as to include the theoretical implications of science and not its application. Research scientists had yet to establish a leadership in expertise. Outside of scientific circles it was generally assumed that a person in an occupation related to the sciences carried out work which was necessarily “scientific” and that the skill of the scientist did not hold any more merit than the skill of a labourer. A philosophical position on science was not thought by all researchers to be intellectually superior to applied methods. However any research on scientific application was limited by comparison. A loose definition attributed all naturally occurring phenomena to “science”. The growth of scientific study stimulated a desire to reinvigorate the scientific discipline by robust research; in order to extract “pure” science from such broad categorisation.

Scientific Research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organisations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a widely used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution.

Research governance can be defined as the broad range of principles, standards and regulations of good practice that exist to achieve and continuously improve research quality. It applies through all stages of the research process, from the stages of funding and project design, ethical approvals, to carrying out the research, storing data and through to the dissemination of the results via publications or technology transfer.

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